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Homesickness of Indonesian Students in Hawaii July 30, 2010

Posted by lapsippipm in English Learning.
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Homesickness of Indonesian Students in Hawaii

David  Efendi

University Hawaii At Manoa

Reading and Writing Class, Special English Program

Instructor: Robert Boom

July 28, 2010

David  Efendi

Reading and Writing Class

Intructor : Robert Boom

July 28, 2010

Homesickness in Indonesian Students

Thesis :  Most Indonesian students have several different intensity and expression of homesickness. Internet technology helps in reducing their homesickness, and therefore homesickness today is no longer major concern.

  1. Overview
    1. Definition
    2. Theories of homesickness
  2. Indonesian Student
    1. Own Culture
    2. Friendship
    3. Family
  3. The Causes and Effect of homesickness


  1. Internal factor

– Personality

– Goals

  1. External factor

– Cultural shock

– Academic system

Effects :

  1. Academic performance
  2. Healthy
  3. How to reduce the homesickness
    1. Make relationship with other student
    2. Communicate with family
    3. Write in diary/blog/book
    4. Meet with student from same countries
    5. Use an Internet connections
  4. Conclusion

Homesickness of Indonesian Students in Hawaii

Are you international student? How do you felt if no internet program with audio visual to talk and meet each other in the different place or countries? I am Indonesian student in Hawaii. I have been staying here for two months. I myself sometimes feel homesick for the first time it is also common for International student, easy to feel homesickness because of separation and loss from their own culture. Even though I have several friend from same countries I  feel homesick as well. Some times what things that should be solution doesn work well. This article will explain specific case on the homesickness of Indonesia students in Hawaii and how they dealt with. It will give same detail about the Indonesian-International student below.

According to many articles and journals, international students often get homesick when they are arriving in the new country, new environment, new collage or university that is much different from they had before. Most people experience homesickness at some time in their life and it can be overwhelming (www.bradford.ac.uk/counselling). You will definitely not be the only person feeling homesick when you arrive at University. Suddenly you are having to cope with being away from your familiar group of friends and family and adapting to a large and unfamiliar environment. The common believe that Indonesian students have several different intensity and expression of homesickness. However, Internet technology helps in reducing their homesickness, and therefore homesickness today is no longer major concern.


There are several definition about homesickness. Homesickness, in some cases is correlated with nostalgia (Routledge, Wildschut, T., Sedikides, C., Arndt,J.2006;). Homesickness is the distress or impairment caused by an actual or anticipated separation from the specific home environment or attachment objects (“Homesickness,” 2005). Feelings of longing are often accompanied by anxiety and depression. These symptoms may range from mild to severe. Homesickness frequently occurs when one travels and may be exacerbated by unfamiliar environments or foreign cultural contexts. Then, they are completely missing with the original thing they had such as pets, family, etc (Bail,1980,pp 7-8).

Homesickness is especially common in youth. But,“Homesickness is not unusual’ (University of Otago.(n.d.).  Young people may experience a sense of dread, helplessness, or separation anxiety on their first day of school, summer camp, or on a protracted summer vacation away from parents. Many first-year students at boarding schools or universities also experience homesickness. According to Fisher that quoted from dictionaries homesickness is include ‘pining for home’ and ‘ depressed by absence from home (Fisher,1989).  Another definition said that homesickness is a missed home environment in addition missed significant persons (Willis, Stroebe, & Hewstone, 2003) and according to Bowlby (1969) homesickness is much more correlate with the effect of separation and loss.  In short, homesickness is feeling bad in new environment and desire to go back to their home country.

These are two theories describe about the homesickness. First, interruption theory (Mandler, 1975) said that raised anxiety and preoccupation with thoughts of home (Fisher, 1989, p.xiii). And the second one is control theory proposed by Fisher (1986) predict that transition from a familiar to a new environment result in a period of loss of control. It is same with what several studies result that adapting to the new role results in period of anxiety in which self focused attention predominates (Wapner, Kaplan & Ciottone, 1981; Outley, 1988).

Three theories above will be used to picture the homesickness of Indonesian students, especially in Hawaii in the recent day. The previous theories somehow will help us to analyses this problem even there are several things changed such as internet revolution, new program with the audio-visual in internet.

Indonesian Student

Indonesian students have their own culture and value. When they are in their home country they feel close with family friends, and also have same culture with the lecture or teacher in university. Entering in the new university that quite different is something challenging. Therefore, they must face this matter and avoid the feeling want to back home. Even though, in the USA they are feeling uncomfortable with its culture, they have to fight because they have a big goal in studying in the foreign country. For the first time, Indonesian students cannot sleep well and feel homesick and they try to contact their friend or family in country. And the strong homesick happens if they didn’t find any friend from some country.

Adjusting to a new campus, roommate, expectations, courses, and routine takes a fair amount of time and patience. It is happen in Indonesian students. By nature, people or newcomer tends to resist change and struggle to hold on to familiar surroundings like the comforts of home, family, and friends. It also happen in my life and as well as my friends in Hawaii. We shared each other about this matter and we know each other well so we think we are not alone. We have many friends that have same case. Nevertheless, they will get different problems in the department because one fell alone in the department or field of study. It rise homesickness in any time.

For example, according the report in the New York Times, international students had several problems when entering the new collage such as how they had overcome difficult family or personal situation or how they achieved goals (Zezima, 2010). They felt that dealing with the new environment in campus or collage academic was not easy. Indonesian student fell homesick not only in the first time arriving but also when in their country have celebration moment like religion day, independent day, or things like that.

In addition, so many articles in internet resources told that homesickness often happen to international University students in the USA, particularly the international studentas as it was reported by same studies. International students felt so hard to life far away from their family, friend, and home country because they also faced the new reality that might be much different with their original environment in social relationship as well as in academic style. Raja, Paksa & Dundes (2002) in their studies said that more and less 30% international students in the USA frequent felling of homesickness (Kegel, 2009).

In Indonesian student case, actually is no much different with Asian student in the USA. They get problem when staying in the new Culture or environment, far from close Friends in their home country, and also separated from warm Family including father, mother, wife/husband and their beloved son or daughter.

The Causes and Effect of homesickness

I classify the causes of homesickness to be two groups. First of all, Internal factors and the second ones is external factor. Internal factors include the personality for example easy going person, sociable, like to try new things etc. External factors such as; new culture, new academic system, etc. Symptoms in homesickness may be emotional, cognitive, or physical. In extreme cases, physical health problems accompany the hallmark symptom of homesickness, which is preoccupying thoughts of home. Most people describe homesickness as a want or longing to be back home, continuously missing their parents, spouse, relatives, friends, mates, pets, and aspects of their familiar environments. People may describe their feelings as a deep sadness, depression, frustration, anger, or hopelessness. In very rare instances, suicidal thoughts may accompany feelings of missing home.

The most common things that causes the homesickness are shock culture, no friends, different language and also far from family. They are easy to feel that they are in the foreign place. The cannot express freely because of their culture. Closes and friendly friend is really needed but in the first a few weeks they got nothing. It is hard to life every day.

Several researchers already identified about the causes of homesickness. The big category are divided into Internal factor, External factor. Studies showed there are three important factors causes homesickness such as intrapersonal factors, interpersonal factors, environmental effects, and shock culture or acculturative stress (Kegel, 2009, pp. 68-71).

Homesickness, according to the numerous studies has effects to the International student in two big matters. First, Academic performance and the second is student’s healthy. This argument is supported by another studies. Homesickness, according to Kegel that had been summarized from other researcher, has several negative impact as Kegel said, Homesickness could give some negative impacts to the student academic progress (Willis et  al.,2003: Stroebe et al.,2002), and over cultural pressure can contribute to daily problems such as: eating and sleeping problems, low energy, headaches, fatigue (Ye,2005). Furthermore, numerous studies showed a relation between homesickness, cultural shock and depression (Kegel,2009)

Most students get feeling blue and anxious in the transition from school to collage or university in everywhere. The collage freshmen feel homesick because of their attachment with their home to much and the transition from homw to calloge give much contribution to homesickness (Beck, Taylor, Robbins, 2002)

How to reduce the homesickness

Some collage has consultative service for their student in coping the personal problem such as homesickness or academic trouble. Student can go there freely. Student service usually publish news letter, brochure, booklet online media etc about several topic in order to socialize how to solve the homesickness. One of the online brochure published the tip how to beat the student’s homesickness. A few things to do when student feel homesickness are get involved, go with friends, keep in touch with family, writing journal, etc(“Ten,” n.d.). The new thing to keep in touch with ones important for you is using online chats room/social network such as Skype, Yahoo Massanger, Facebook, or twitter. These program have a audio visual therefore you can talk with your family or friends even in the long distance.

Kagel (2009) in his article offer a solution for homesickness. He said, “Same treatment such as making good relationship and counseling for international students should be tried to help the student in dealing with this popular problem”. I firmly agree with his point, but we also need some new things to coping homesickness because another technology or society changed.

I observed when Indonesian students felling homesickness most of them  make relationship with other students, Using Internet connection, Communicate with family, Write in diary/blog,  Meet with student from same countries.

The new thing that really help in reducing homesickness recently is using internet connection. They are usually and be familiar with Skype, yahoo messenger, Face book, email, and twitter to contact their friends or family in home country. It is very easy and free, by opening the website, download the program and they can call their family or friends in everywhere. I also interviewed Indonesian students, they really cannot sleep well before opening internet, chatting or calling family or friend every day, every night.

Other thing, I knew some Indonesian student have a great blog in internet and also bestseller novel. They wrote about story when they are leaving, staying far from their beloved people, friend, son/daughter, etc. According that writing, so many Indonesian students fight for academic purpose and try to minimize their matter in homesickness. They are aware with their main goal.


Most Indonesian students have several different intensity and expression of homesickness. Chat rooms in internet network program is really give much help for Indonesian students in beating their homesickness, and therefore they now need not to worry too much.


Bail, M.(1980). Homesickness. Australia: The Macmillan Company of Australia.

Beck.R, Taylor.C, & Robbins.M. (2003). Missing Home: Sociotropy and Autonomy and Their Relatisonship To Psycology Distress and Homesickness In Collage Freshmen. Department of Psychology, Abiline Cristiane Unversity, USA.

Coping with Homesickness (n.d.). Retrived from http://www.bradford.ac.uk/counselling

Fisher, S.(1989). Homesickness, Cognition, and Health. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.

Fisher, Shirly & Hood, B.(1987). The stress of the transition to university: A longitudinal study of psychological disturbance, absent-mindedness and vulnerability to homesickness. Britis Journal of Psychology. The British Psychological Society.

Damhuri.M.(2009,Oct 18). Negeri 5 Menara dari Gontor ke Trafalgar Square. Review of the book Negeri 5 Menara, by A.Fuadi. Retrived from http://www.bukukita.com/Non-Fiksi-Lainnya/Kisah-Nyata/72506-Negeri-5-Menara-:-Sebuah-Novel-yang-Terinspirasi-Kisah-Nyata.html.

Homesickness. (2008, Sept 25). In Reference.com. Retrieved July 29,2010 from http://www.reference.com/browse/homesickness

Kegel,K.(2009). Homesickness in International college students. In G.R.Walz,J.C.Bleuer,& R.K.Yep (eds),Compelling counseling interventions: VISTAS 2009 (p.67-76). Alexandria,VA: American Counseling Association.

Routledge, C., Wildschut, T., Sedikides, C., Arndt,J.(2006). Nostalgia: Content, Triggers, Functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The American Psychological Association, Vol. 91, No. 5, 975–993

Steiner.J.(Ed).(2009).U.S.Classroom Culture. Washington.D.S: Associtaion of International Educators-NAFSA.

Ten helpful hints to beat college student homesickness. (n.d.). Retrivied July 20, 2010 from http://www.essortment.com/all/collegestudent_phu.htm

University of Otago.(n.d.). Homesickness, Settling Into tertiary life [brochure]. New Zealand

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia(2001-2006) Wikipedia contributors ( Disclaimer) Homesickness. Retrieved From http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Homesickness

Rakhma.E. (2009, Mart 12). “Mozaik kehidupan seperti apa yang kau jalani sekarang,saat aku tak di sisimu, sayang?”. Review of the book Long Distance Love,by Zahra.I. Retrivied from http://news.id.msn.com/local/okezone/article.aspx?cp-documentid=3158024

Zezima,K. (2010). Women’s Collage Shift To Woo Less Well-Off. The New York Times (May 30,2010). P.13


Dialog SBY dan Korban Gempa Sumbar July 30, 2010

Posted by lapsippipm in Catatan hati.

Suatu saat pasca Gempa Sumatra Barat 30 September. Presiden SBY sedang mengunjungi korban gempa di Sumbar. Ia ditemui anak-anak SD dan gurunya. Pendi, seorang murid bertanya, ”Apakah Pak SBY akan membentu korban gempa lebih cepat dan lebih baik?” ”Iya, itu tanggung Jawab saya biar saya atur….”

Ajo, anak yang kelas 6, langsung menyeletuk, ”Pak SBY! Kapan lumpur Sidoarjo dituntaskan dan yang salah dihukum?” ”Sebentar, Adik. Saya sedang menjelaskan sesuatu kepada yang bertanya duluan.”

Ajo mendesak, ”Bagaimana dengan pemberantasan Korupsi di Istana yang katanya Bpak SBY yang memimpin? Apakah sudah ditangkap yang besar-besar?” ”Murid-murid yang cerdas,” keluh SBY sambil mengusap keringatnya, ”biarkan saya yang menurusnya, pak SBY sudah punya banyak rencana….” Namun, keduanya anak menggerutu tidak puas. Lalu terdengar suara Ibu Guru Kepala Sekolah, ”Bapak SBY yang terhormat, apakah sekolah- sekolah yang hampir dan ambruk yang jumlahnya ribuan itu sudah dijadwalkan perbaikannya ?” Bubar semua, saya jangan digurui”, Presiden meledak dan meninggalkan tenda darurat diikuti ajudan dan para jubirnya. Lalu seorang jubirnya yang juga ikut kesal berbisik lirih, ”Maaf Boss, Tenang. Mohon sedikit sabar situasi sedang darurat gempa. Dan anak-anak plus gurunya itu pun membubarkan diri karena ada sekelompok NGO yang membawa bantuan makanan untuk mereka.

Kisah ini fiktif belaka, diadopsi dari kisah William Liddle, Presiden Gatotkoco,2010

Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) Sermon on welcoming the month of Ramadhan July 29, 2010

Posted by lapsippipm in Read n Learn.
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O People! The month of Allah (Ramadhan) has approached you with His mercy and blessings. This is the month that is the best of all months in the estimation of Allah. Its days are the best among the days; its nights are the best among the nights. Its hours are the best among the hours.

This is a month in which he has invited you. You have been, in this month, selected as the recipients of the honors of Allah, the Merciful. In this holy month, when you breathe, it has the Sawab/thawab (heavenly reward) of ‘Tasbeeh’ (the praise of Allah on rosary beads), and your sleep has the thawab of worship.

Your good deeds are accepted in this month. So are your invocations. Therefore, you must invoke your Lord, in right earnest, with hearts that are free from sins and evils, that Allah may bless you, observe fast, in this month, and recite the Holy Quran.

Verily! The person who may not receive the mercy and benevolence of Allah in this month must be very unfortunate having an end as bad (in the Hereafter). While fasting, remember the hunger and thirst of tomorrow in Qiyamat. Give alms to the poor and the needy. Pay respects to your elders.

Have pity on those younger than you and be kind towards your relatives and kinsmen. Guard your tongues against unworthy words, and your eyes from such scenes that are not worth seeing (forbidden) and your ears from such sounds that should not be heard by you.

Be kind to orphans so that when your children become orphans they also may be treated with kindness. Do invoke that Allah may forgive your sins. Do raise your hands at the time of Salat (Prayers), as it is the best time for asking His mercy. When we invoke at such times, we are answered by Him, when we call Him, He responds, and when we ask for anything, it is accepted by Him.

O People! You have made your conscience the slave of your desires; make it free by invoking Him for Istighfar (repentance/forgiveness). Your back is breaking under the heavy load of your sins, so prostrate before Him for long intervals and make it lighter.

Do understand fully well that Allah has promised in the name of His Majesty and Honor that He will not take to task such people who fast and offer Salat in this month and perform ‘sajda’ (prostration), and will guard their bodies against the Fire of Hell on the Day of Judgment.

O People! If anybody amongst you arranges for the Iftar (food for the ending of the fast) of any believer, then Allah will give him a reward as if he has set free a slave. He will forgive his minor sins.

Then the companions of Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: “But everybody amongst us does not have the means to do so?”

Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) told them: – Keep yourself away from the Fire of Hell, by inviting for ‘Iftar’, though it may consist of only half a date or simply with water if you have nothing else. O People! Anybody who may cultivate good manners in this month will walk over the ‘Siraat’ (Bridge) in ‘Qiyamat’, though his feet may be shaking.

Anybody who in this month may take light work from his servants (male or female), Allah will make easy his accounting on the Day of Judgment.

Anybody who does not tease others in this month, Allah will keep him safe from His wrath in Qiyamat. Anybody, who respects and treats an orphan with kindness in this month, Allah shall look at him with dignity in Qiyamat. Anybody who treats well his kinsmen, in this month, Allah will bestow His mercy on him in Qiyamat, while anybody who maltreats his kinsmen in this month, Allah will keep him away from His mercy, in Qiyamat.

Salat and salamWhoever offers ‘Sunnat’ (Recommended) prayers in this month, Allah will give him a certificate of freedom from Hell. Whosoever offers one ‘Wajib’ Salat in this month, for him the Angels will write the rewards of 70 such prayers, which were offered by him in any other months.

Whosoever recites repeatedly ‘Salat and salam (Salawat)’ on me, Allah will keep the scales of his deeds heavy, when in Qiyamat the scales of others will be tending towards lightness.

Whosoever recites in this month only one ‘Ayat’ (verse of the Holy Quran), he will be rewarded in a manner as if he had recited the full Holy Quran in the other months.

O People! The Gates of Paradise remain opened in this month. Do invoke that the gates may not be closed on you, while the Gates of Hell are closed. Do invoke that these gates may never be opened. During this month Shaitan (Satan) is imprisoned so ask your Lord not to let him have power over you.

source: http://www.ezsoftech.com/ramadan/ramadan00.asp

7 Keuntungan Membaca July 28, 2010

Posted by lapsippipm in Read n Learn.
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7 Keuntungan Membaca

David Efendi, LaPSI PP IPM

Pertama, kita mesti percaya bahwa membaca adalah kunci untuk membuka gerbang ilmu kesemestaan. Seentara buku adalah jendela dunia yang terhampar luasnya. Dnengan demikian kita menimani ayat Allah tentang seruan Iqro’, perintah membaca yang terdapat dalam salah satu ayat al Quran surat al Alaq yang berbunyi: “Bacalah dengan mengagungkan nama tuhanmu yang telah menciptakanmu…” . Banyak ilmuwan baik dari kalangan muslim maupun non muslim memuji kehadiaran ayat ini dan dianggap sebagai ayat pertama yang meletakkan sendi-sendi seradaban melalaui sebuah perintah agung: BACALAH!.

“Iqro”: Bacalah, demikian setiap insan diperintahkan oleh sang penguasa Semesta. Dan kita ditutntut untuk mencoba memaknai dan melaksanakan serta mengambil hikmah dari perintah tersebut. Membaca seperti apa yang diperintahkan? Rasanya bukan sekedar perintah membaca biasa? Sebagai anak muda pasti kita membutuhkan jawabannya? Iya kan?

Seorang mufasir terkemuka, Quraish Shihab dalam tafsir Al Misbah mengartikan iqro secara istimewa yaitu kegiatan aktif yang meliputi membaca teks, membaca realitas, memahami, meneliti/riset. Jadi, makna iqro itu teramat luasnya sehingga meliputi dimensi tekstual(buku) dan kesemestaan(jagat alam). Kecerdasan yang hendak dibangun oleh tuhan bukanlah kecerdasan mental, otak, spritual, namun kecerdasan emosional yang berdimensi semesta, lingkungan adalah hal yang penting sehingga manusia bisa memahami gerak-gerik dan fenomena alam. Artinya membaca di sini itu diwarnai dengan semangat daya pikir yang total-menyeluruh, mengingat, menganalisa dan bakan membayangkan sebuah langkah untuk mengatasi sebuah permasalahan. Berbagai bencana alam yang terjadi di negeri ini adalah menuntut refleksi kita, sejauh mana kita mampu bersahabat dan membaca nalar alam yang mempunyai “the power of nature”.Baiklah saya mensarikan dari sebuah lembaga training terkemuka, EXPERD, tentang berita penting: 7 keuntungan Membaca alam semesta (Eilan Rachman dan Sylvina Savitri ):

  1. Mengusir keraguan, kecemasan, dan kesedihan.
  2. Menebalkan keimanan, karena sesungguhnya bacaan pelajaran yang paling besar, peringatan yang paling agung, pencegahan kemungkaran yang paling efesien, dan perintah yang paling bijak.
  3. Melemaskan lidah dan menghiasi diri dengan kefasihan berbicara
  4. Mengembangkan wawasan berfikir dan memperbaiki persepsi.
  5. Mengambil manfaat dari pengalaman orang lain
  6. Menelaah berbagai kebudayaan yang menumbuhkan kesadaran akan perannya dalam kehidupan.
  7. Menjaga kalbu dari kekacauan, dan memelihara waktu dari ke sia-siaan.

Luar biasa manfaat membaca itu kalau kita mau melakukannya. Kalau tidak ya bagaimana mungkin bisa memproleh manfaat dari sebuah tradisi “agung” yang bernama membaca. Apabila kita membicarakan membaca dalam arti membaca teks maka ini akan dikaitkan dengan sikap intelktualitas kita. Sikap intelektual sangat berkaitan dengan bacaan yang dikonsumsi sehar-hari sehingga ada yang mengatakan bahwa : “you are what you read!!” dan kadar itelektualitas itu juga cukup dipengaruhi oleh cara membaca. Ada orang yang yang membaca sambil berimajinasi, mengambil intisari, menggarisbawahi, bahkan ada yang membaca daftar isinya saja, lalu dilajutkan yang .enarik untuk dibaca dan sebagainya dan sebagainya.

Seorang yang cerdas membaca perlu mampu membaca buku dengan menghadirkan konteks dan lingkungan yang mengelilinginya. Terhadap sebuah tulisan pembaca perlu hadir, menyerap, menyimpulkan, mengulang/review, dan juga memperjelas.

Selamat membaca alam semesta!!

Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) July 28, 2010

Posted by lapsippipm in new words.
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Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC)
Greek critic, philosopher, physicist, & zoologist

Education is the best provision for old age.

Aristotle, from Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers

Hope is a waking dream.

Aristotle, from Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers

I have gained this by philosophy: that I do without being commanded what others do only from fear of the law.

Aristotle, from Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers

Liars when they speak the truth are not believed.

Aristotle, from Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers

What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies.

Aristotle, from Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers

I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies.

Aristotle, In Stobaeus, Florilegium

All men by nature desire knowledge.

Aristotle, Metaphysics

For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

It is possible to fail in many ways…while to succeed is possible only in one way.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

One swallow does not make a summer.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

Piety requires us to honor truth above our friends.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

To be conscious that we are perceiving or thinking is to be conscious of our own existence.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

To enjoy the things we ought and to hate the things we ought has the greatest bearing on excellence of character.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

We make war that we may live in peace.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

We must as second best…take the least of the evils.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

With regard to excellence, it is not enough to know, but we must try to have and use it.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

Without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods.

Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics

In the arena of human life the honours and rewards fall to those who show their good qualities.

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (4th c. BC)

In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous.

Aristotle, Parts of Animals

Time crumbles things; everything grows old under the power of Time and is forgotten through the lapse of Time.

Aristotle, Physics

A state is not a mere society, having a common place, established for the prevention of mutual crime and for the sake of exchange…Political society exists for the sake of noble actions, and not of mere companionship.

Aristotle, Politics

Again, men in general desire the good, and not merely what their fathers had.

Aristotle, Politics

Even when laws have been written down, they ought not always to remain unaltered.

Aristotle, Politics

He who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god.

Aristotle, Politics

If liberty and equality, as is thought by some are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will be best attained when all persons alike share in the government to the utmost.

Aristotle, Politics

It is the nature of desire not to be satisfied, and most men live only for the gratification of it.

Aristotle, Politics

Law is order, and good law is good order.

Aristotle, Politics

Man is by nature a political animal.

Aristotle, Politics

Nature does nothing uselessly.

Aristotle, Politics

A constitution is the arrangement of magistracies in a state.

A friend to all is a friend to none.

A great city is not to be confounded with a populous one.

A sense is what has the power of receiving into itself the sensible forms of things without the matter, in the way in which a piece of wax takes on the impress of a signet-ring without the iron or gold.

A tragedy is a representation of an action that is whole and complete and of a certain magnitude. A whole is what has a beginning and middle and end.

A true friend is one soul in two bodies.

A tyrant must put on the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion. Subjects are less apprehensive of illegal treatment from a ruler whom they consider god-fearing and pious. On the other hand, they do less easily move against him, believing that he has the gods on his side.

All human actions have one or more of these seven causes: chance, nature, compulsions, habit, reason, passion, desire.

All men by nature desire knowledge.

All paid jobs absorb and degrade the mind.

All virtue is summed up in dealing justly.

Anybody can become angry – that is easy, but to be angry with the right person and to the right degree and at the right time and for the right purpose, and in the right way – that is not within everybody’s power and is not easy.

At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice he is the worst.

Bad men are full of repentance.

Bashfulness is an ornament to youth, but a reproach to old age.

Both oligarch and tyrant mistrust the people, and therefore deprive them of their arms.

Bring your desires down to your present means. Increase them only when your increased means permit.

Change in all things is sweet.

Character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion.

Courage is a mean with regard to fear and confidence.